The vote will take place on 29 September followed by the result announced on 9 November, the National Association of Head Teachers has revealed.
The union, which represents around 28,500 head teachers, deputy and assistant heads in schools in England, Wales and Northern Ireland, has not held such a ballot in its 114-year history.
Last term, around 12,000 schools and colleges faced closure or disruption during a one-day walkout by the National Union of Teachers, the Association of Teachers and Lecturers and the University and College Union.
A Cabinet Office spokesman said: “We are totally committed to genuine engagement with the unions. We have a lot to talk about and there are proposals on the table for discussion.”
Plans are also in place for other public sector employees to take action on 30 November against pension reductions.