NHS organisation should take responsibility for its own leadership development and quality of management, including dealing with failing managers. And the work that was started to strengthen leadership and leadership development should be taken forward through the creation of an NHS Leadership Centre.

Commission chair Professor Chris Ham (also chief executive of The King’s Fund) said: “We know there is public support for reducing the number of NHS managers. But given the immense challenges facing the NHS, politicians of all parties must resist the temptation to denigrate the value of management in delivering excellent and efficient services.

“The priority for the future NHS must be to deliver the best care possible to those with chronic and long-term conditions. That needs a new style of NHS leader, as adept at building partnerships